99% Purity Nootropics Cdp-Choline Powders For Brain Excited Memory Enhance CAS: 987-78-0
||CDP Choline Citicoline
CDP Choline Citicoline, also known as cytidine diphosphate-choline (CDP-Choline) or cytidine 5-diphosphocholine is an intermediate in the generation of phosphatidylcholine from choline, a common biochemical process in cell membranes. Citicoline is naturally occurring in the cells of human and animal tissue, in particular the organs.
CDP-choline is a nootropic compound that is essentially a prodrug for both choline and uridine, conferring both of those molecules to the body following oral ingestion of CDP-Choline. Specifically, the CDP-choline dissociates into choline and cytidine, with the cytidine then converting into uridine. CDP-choline is one of the three choline-containing phospholipids that can be orally supplemented (the other two being Alpha-GPC and phosphatidylcholine).
This supplement is catered towards preventing or treating memory impairments associated with aging due to the fact that both of the molecules it confers are neuroprotective and potentially enhance learning. While it appears to be more effective than phosphatidylcholine (PC) at this role, in part due to also increasing PC synthesis in the brain, its potency is somewhat comparable to that of Alpha-GPC.
Studies suggest that CDP-choline supplements increase dopamine receptor densities, and suggest that CDP-choline supplementation helps prevent memory impairment resulting from poor environmental conditions. Preliminary research has found that citicoline supplements help improve focus and mental energy.
Citicoline has also been shown to elevate ACTH independently from CRH levels and to amplify the release of other HPA axis hormones such as LH, FSH, GH and TSH in response to hypothalamic releasing factors. These effects on HPA hormone levels may be beneficial for some individuals but may have undesirable effects in those with medical conditions featuring ACTH or cortisol hypersecretion including PCOS, type II diabetes and major depressive disorder.
In a review of 14 clinical trials, the authors concluded there was evidence of benefit of citicoline on memory function and behaviour in patients suffering from cognitive deficits ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Dosing in most of the trials was 1000 mg/day. A more recent review reached the same conclusions, but went on to state that more clinical trials are needed to confirm its benefits.
Mechanism of Action:
The neuroprotective effects exhibited by citicoline may be due to its preservation of cardiolipin and sphingomyelin, preservation of arachidonic acid content of phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine, partial restoration of phosphatidylcholine levels, and stimulation of glutathione synthesis and glutathione reductase activity.
Citicolines effects may also be explained by the reduction of phospholipase A2 activity. Citicoline increases phosphatidylcholine synthesis. The mechanism for this may be: By converting 1, 2-diacylglycerol into phosphatidylcholine, stimulating the synthesis of SAMe, which aids in membrane stabilization and reduces levels of arachidonic acid. This is especially important after an ischemia, when arachidonic acid levels are elevated.
Standard dosing of CDP-choline is to take 200-600mg in two divided doses usually separated by 8-12 hours, although a single daily dose is also sometimes used. There are some properties, such as attention-promotion or improving bioenergetics, that seem to respond exclusively or more strongly to the lower dosage range. Other properties like appetite are the opposite, and thus the ideal dosage depends somewhat on the goal.
Citicoline has a very low toxicity profile in animals and humans. Clinically, doses of 2000 mg per day have been observed and approved. Minor transient adverse effects are rare and most commonly include stomach pain and diarrhea.
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99% Purity Nootropics Cdp-Choline Powders For Brain Excited Memory Enhance CAS: Images